Tuesday, June 12, 2018

Art Gallery - Taiwan National Palace Museum: Gallery 205f (Magic Of The Kneaded Clay 07)

You are at - Jotaro's Blog / Footsteps-Cycling Taiwan 2017 / Art Gallery Taiwan Art / Taiwan National Palace Museum / 2nd Floor / Gallery 205f    |     Go To 201 / 203a / 203b /203c / 205a / 205b / 205c / 205d / 205e / 212 / 1st Flr / 3rd Flr
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Taiwan National Palace Museum: 2nd Floor Gallery 205f
(Magic Of The Kneaded Clay 07) - November 2017
Hu-shaped jar with two handles in red glaze - red glazed porcelain, Emperor Xuantong (宣統) (1906–1967) reign (1908–1912), also known as Puyi (溥儀), the last emperor of China.
The National Palace Museum, located in Taipei and TaibaoTaiwan, has a permanent collection of nearly 700,000 pieces of ancient Chinese imperial artifacts and artworks. Gallery 205f (Magic Of The Kneaded Clay 07) covers pottery produced during the period from the reign of Emperor Jiaqing (嘉慶帝) (1760–1820), reign (1796 –1820) to that of Emperor Xuantong (宣統) (1906–1967), reign (1908–1912) of the Qing Dynasty (清朝) (1644–1912). That marked the end of Imperial China and the start of the Republic of China.

This blog comes in several pages, this is Gallery 205f of the second floor galleries, click below to navigate to other sections:
Go To 3rd Flr

Go to 2nd Flr 205e           |         Go To 2nd Flr Main          |          Go to 2nd Flr 212 >

Go To 1st Flr

1) Emperor Jiaqing (嘉慶帝) (1760–1820), reign (1796 –1820).
    He was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China. He was the 15th son of the Emperor Qianlong. During his reign, he prosecuted Heshen, the corrupt favourite of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire and curb the smuggling of opium into China.

2) Emperor Daoguang (道光帝) (1782–1850), reign (1820–1850).

    His reign was marked by "external disaster and internal rebellion," that is, by the First Opium War (1839-1842) ,and the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion which nearly brought down the dynasty.

3) Emperor Xianfeng (咸豐帝) (1831–1861), reign (18501861).

    He succeeded at age 19, and was a relatively young emperor. He inherited a dynasty that faced not only internal but also foreign challenges. These included the Taiping Rebellionbiggest revolt of the Miao people, the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan

    An initially minor incident on the coasts triggered the Second Opium War (1856-1860), and in the final battle Anglo-French forces completely annihilated his elite Mongol cavalry, and  the British and French forces went on to loot and burn the Old Summer Palace and Summer Palace.

4) Emperor Tongzhi (同治帝) (1856–1875), reign (18611875).

    His reign effectively lasted through his adolescence, was largely overshadowed by the rule of his mother, Empress Dowager Cixi (慈禧太后). Although he had little influence over state affairs, the events of his reign gave rise to what historians call the "Tongzhi Restoration", an unsuccessful attempt to stabilise and modernise China.

5) Emperor Guangxu (光緒帝) (1871–1908), reign (18751908).

    His reign lasted from 1875 to 1908, but in practice he ruled, under Empress Dowager Cixi's influence, only from 1889 to 1898. He initiated the Hundred Days' Reform, but was abruptly stopped when the empress dowager launched a coup in 1898, after which he was put under house arrest until his death.

6) Emperor Xuantong (宣統) (1906–1967), reign (1908–1912).

   Better known as Puyi (溥儀); he was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing DynastyChosen by Empress Dowager Cixi on her deathbed, Puyi became emperor at the age of 2 years and 10 monthsHe reigned as the Emperor Xuantong in China and Khevt Yos Khaan in Mongolia from 1908 until his forced abdication on 12 February 1912, after the Xinhai Revolution. From 1 to 12 July 1917, he was briefly restored to the throne as emperor by the warlord Zhang XunIn 1932 after the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, the state of Manchukuo was established by Japan, and he was chosen to become "Emperor" of the new state using the era-name of Datong (Ta-tung). In 1934, he was declared the Emperor Kangde of Manchukuo and ruled until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945. After the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, Puyi was imprisoned as a war criminal for 10 years.

 Pottery made or collected during this period included the following type and finishing:
a) Blue and white porcelain (青花, Qīng-huā) covers a wide range of white pottery and porcelain decorated under the glaze with a blue pigment, generally cobalt oxide. The decoration is commonly applied by hand, originally by brush painting. Blue and white decoration first became widely used in Chinese porcelain in the 14th century, after the cobalt pigment for the blue began to be imported from Persia.
b) Famille rose, Fencai (粉彩) (also known as Ruancai (軟彩), meaning 'soft colours', and later as Yangcai (洋彩), meaning 'foreign colours') was introduced during the reign of the Emperor Kangxi (1654–1722), possibly around 1720. It used mainly pink or purple and remained popular throughout the 18th and the 19th centuries, also being widely adopted by European factories. Famille rose enamel ware allows a greater range of colour and tone than was previously possible, enabling the depiction of more complex images, including flowers, figures and insects.
c) Celadon glaze (青瓷) is a term for pottery denoting both wares glazed in the jade green celadon color, also known as greenware and a type of transparent glaze, often with small cracks, that was first used on greenware, but later used on other porcelains. Celadon originated in China, though the term is purely European, and notable kilns such as the Longquan kiln in Zhejiang province are renowned for their Celadon glazes.
d) Doucai glaze (斗彩) is a technique in painted Chinese porcelain, where parts of the design, and some outlines of the rest, are painted in underglaze blue, and the piece is then glazed and fired. The rest of the design is then added in overglaze enamels of different colours and the piece fired again at a lower temperature of about 850°C to 900°C. 
The style began in the 15th century under the Ming Dynasty in the imperial factories at Jingdezhen, and its finest products come from a few years in the reign of the Emperor Chenghua, mostly small pieces like the famous Chicken cups. The style was discontinued after a few decades, as a suitable overglaze blue was developed, but later revived under the Qing Dynasty. It is not to be confused with the wucai style, which was a related early technique for polychome painting. Doucai can be translated as "contrasted colours", "fitted colours", "colours which fit together" or "dove-tailed colours".

Below are displays form the collection of Emperor Jiaqing (嘉慶帝) (1760–1820), reign (1796 –1820): 

Covered jar with happiness character (喜) pattern in gold on red background.

Brush holder in imitation of bamboo carving in yellow glaze.

Vase with nine dragons - Qīng-huā (青花) Blue and white porcelain.

Teapot with Indian lotus scrolls Qīng-huā (青花) Blue and white porcelain.

Teapot base plate with Indian lotus scrolls - Fencai (粉彩) polychrome enamels porcelain.

Vase with a sash and Indian lotus scrolls Fencai (粉彩) polychrome enamels porcelain.
Below are displays form the collection of Emperor Daoguang (道光帝) (1782–1850), reign (1820–1850):

Covered jar with green dragons.

Basin with paired dragons - Qīng-huā (青花) Blue and white porcelain.

Octagon vase - Celadon glaze (青瓷) porcelain.

Covered bowl with prunus Fencai (粉彩) polychrome enamels porcelain.
Below are displays form the collection of Emperor Xianfeng (咸豐帝) (1831–1861), reign (18501861):

Square vase with antiques in Fencai (粉彩) polychrome enamels porcelain.

Container with floral patterin Qīng-huā (青花) Blue and white porcelain.
Below are displays form the collection of Emperor Tongzhi (同治帝) (1856–1875), reign (18611875):

Bowls with prunus and magpies in yellow background Fencai (粉彩) polychrome enamels porcelain.

Below are displays form the collection of Emperor Guangxu (光緒帝) (1871–1908), reign (18751908):

Vase with hundred butterflies - Fencai (粉彩) polychrome enamels porcelain.

Covered box with birds and flowers in lake-green background Fencai (粉彩) polychrome enamels porcelain.

Plate with Chinese Eight Treasures (八寶) - Fencai (粉彩) polychrome enamels porcelain.

The Chinese Eight Treasures (八寶) are popular symbols in Chinese art. While technically they may be any subset of the much longer list of the Hundred Treasures, there is a combination that is most popular:

  1. the wish-granting pearl (寳珠, bǎozhū) or flaming pearl
  2. the double lozenges (方勝, "fāngshèng")
  3. the stone chime (磬, "qìng")
  4. the pair of rhinoceros horns (犀角, xījiǎo)
  5. the double coins (雙錢, shuāngqián)
  6. the gold or silver ingot (錠, dìng)
  7. coral (珊瑚, shānhú)
  8. wish-granting scepter (如意, rúyì)

Flower-shaped vase with motif of fish and dragon in green background.

Zong-shaped vase in Cobalt Blue glaze.

Plate with yellow dragons in blue glaze background; a departure from the Qīng-huā (青花) Blue and white porcelain, using yellow instead of white.

Vase base plate with floral design in dark blue background.


Below are displays form the collection of Emperor Xuantong (宣統) (1906–1967), reign (1908–1912), better known as Puyi (溥儀). He was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing Dynasty:

Bowl with the Eight Immortals (八仙) - blue underglaze with painted red enamels porcelain.
The Eight Immortals (八仙) are a group of legendary xian ("immortals") in Chinese mythology. Each immortal's power can be transferred to a power tool (法器) that can bestow life or destroy evil. Most of them are said to have been born in the Tang Dynasty or Song Dynasty. They are revered by the Taoists and are also a popular element in the secular Chinese culture. They are said to live on a group of five islands in the Bohai Sea, which includes Penglai Mountain-Island.

Tow view of the bowl with eight immortals.
The Immortals are:
  • He Xian'gu (何瓊): Her lotus flower improves one's health, mental and physical. She is depicted holding a lotus flower, and sometimes with the musical instrument known as sheng, or a fenghuangto accompany her. She may also carry a bamboo ladle or fly-whisk.
  • Cao Guojiu (曹國舅): Cao is often depicted dressed in official robes and holding a jade tablet or castanets. He is also regarded as the patron deity of acting and theatre.
  • Li Tieguai (李鐵拐): His characteristic emblems are the gourd bottle which identifies him as one of the Eight Immortals and also his iron crutch. A vapour cloud emanates from the gourd, and within it is the sage's hun (soul); which may be depicted as a formless shape or as a miniature double of his bodily self.
  • Lan Caihe (藍采和): The character is usually depicted as a boy or girl dressed in sexually ambiguous clothing and carrying a bamboo flower basket and/or a pair of bamboo castanets (an artifact of Cao Guojiu, also one of the immortals). Lan Caihe is said to have been in a drunken stupor when they left the human world by riding on a celestial swan or crane into Heaven. One legend says that they became an Immortal with the help of Sun Wukong, who transferred 500 years of magical powers to them.
  • Lü Dongbin (呂洞賓): Lü Dongbin is usually portrayed as a scholarly, clever man with a genuine desire to help people obtain wisdom/enlightenment and to learn the Tao.
  • Han Xiangzi (韓湘子): He is often depicted carrying a dizi(Chinese flute), so he is also regarded as the patron deity of flutists. He is also believed to be the composer of the Taoist musical piece Tian Hua Yin (天花引).
  • Zhang Guolao (張果老): He may be depicted standing or seated, but is typically shown riding his white mule, usually seated facing backwards. His emblem is a fish drum, which is a tube-shaped bamboo drum with two iron rods or mallets that he carries with him,
  • Zhongli Quan (鐘離權): Usually depicted with his chest and belly bare and holding a fan made of feathers or horse hair, Zhongli is often set apart from the other immortals in pictures by wisps of hair on his temples and a beard down to his navel. He is known for his pleasing disposition, and is often painted or drawn drinking wine. In legend, he wields a large fan which can resurrect the dead and transform stones into silver or gold.

Plate with dragons and clouds painted in red.

Plate with decoration of Eight Immortals (八仙) - Doucai glaze (斗彩) polychrome porcelain.

This blog comes in several pages, this is Gallery 205f of the second floor galleries, click below to navigate to other sections:
Go to 2nd Flr 205e           |          Go To 2nd Flr Main         |          Go to 2nd Flr 212 >
Go To 1st Flr

Second Floor Layout Plan National Palace Museum Taipei

National Palace Museum
No. 221, Sec 2, Zhi Shan Rd, Shilin District, Taipei City, Taiwan 111.
Entry fee: NTD 250
Sundays to Thursdays: 8:30am to 6:30pm     |     Fridays & Saturdays: 8:30am to 9:00pm
Website: https://www.npm.gov.tw/en/
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/npmgov/
GPS & Direction Map: 25.10235, 121.54849

(Click here for interactive Google Street View)

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You are at - Jotaro's Blog / Footsteps-Cycling Taiwan 2017 / Art Gallery Taiwan Art / Taiwan National Palace Museum / 2nd Floor / Gallery 205f     |     Go To 201 / 203a / 203b /203c / 205a / 205b / 205c / 205d / 205e / 212 / 1st Flr / 3rd Flr
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